Outside its centers of origin, garlic propagates only asexually. Since asexual reproduction leads to the absence of meiotic recombination, the main garlic cultivars available for cultivation have arisen from the accumulation of somatic mutations in early cultivars. Thus, it is common for a single clone to have different names in different regions. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic diversity of 20 garlic cultivars by using morphological characters and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to identify possible duplicate cultivars.
Low efficiency of somatic cell cloning by nuclear transfer has been associated with alterations of placental vascular architecture. Placental growth and function depend on the growth of blood vessels; VEGF-A and bFGF are the most important factors controlling neovascularization and vascular permeability in the placenta. We hypothesize that the VEGF-A and bFGF systems are disrupted in placentomes from cloned animals, contributing to the placental abnormalities that are common in these clones.