Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor is closely associated with the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. The level of exogenous advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in articular cartilage is highly associated with the severity of osteoarthritic lesions. However, their interactions and role in promoting osteoarthritisprogression remain unclear.
Chondrocytes, which are embedded within the growth-plate or the intervertebral disc, are sensitive to environmental stresses, such as inflammation and hypoxia. However, little is known about the molecular signaling pathways underlying hypoxia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in chondrocytes. We first examined the apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, and apoptosis-associated markers in human chondrocyte cell line C28/I2 under normoxia or hypoxia.