Heterosis has greatly contributed to conventional plant breeding and is widely used to increase crop plant productivity. However, although some studies have explored the mechanisms of heterosis at the genomic and transcriptome level, these mechanisms still remain unclear. The growth and development of maize seedlings and immature embryos have an important impact on subsequent production.
Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is a tree in the subfamily Faboideae, native to North America, that has been naturalized and widely planted in temperate Europe and Asia. Black locust has important ecological and economic value, but its quality needs improvement. Hybridization programs are important for black locust breeding, but the low rate of fruit set after controlled pollination limits both its breeding and that of other monoclinous plant species that share this problem.