Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T.
β2-Microglobulin (β2m) is related to major histocompatibility complex class I alpha chains, and forms cell-surface glycoproteins that mediate a variety of functions in immune defense. In general, β2m has no isoforms and is not polymorphic in higher vertebrates, but polymorphisms between different alleles have been found in some fish species. In this study, full-length β2m cDNA and genomic sequences were cloned from the miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy).