Embryos produced by hormonal superstimulation have been used as an in vivo control in most published research on embryo gene expression. However, it is not known if this is the most appropriate control for gene expression profile studies.
Genetic variation provides a basis upon which populations can be genetically improved. Management of animal genetic resources in order to minimize loss of genetic diversity both within and across breeds has recently received attention at different levels, e.g., breed, national and international levels. A major need for sustainable improvement and conservation programs is accurate estimates of population parameters, such as rate of inbreeding and effective population size. A software system (POPREP) is presented that automatically generates a typeset report.
Transgenesis in cattle has provided numerous opportunities for livestock production. The development of nuclear transfer (NT) technology has improved the production of transgenic livestock. However, the isolation of pure colonies from a single transfection event remains laborious and can be a constraint in the production of transgenic livestock. We used 96-well cell culture plates to isolate cell lineages obtained from a single fibroblast transfected with the pCi-Neo plasmid.
An insertion mutation within exon 12 of the factor XI gene has been described in Holstein cattle. This has opened the prospect for large-scale screening of cattle using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for the rapid identification of heterozygous animals. To facilitate such a screening process, the mutant and normal alleles of factor XI gene, represented by 244- and 320-bp PCR amplified fragments, were individually cloned in Escherichia coli using a multicopy plasmid cloning vehicle to generate pFXI-N and pFXI-M, respectively.
Losses caused by bovine tick burdens in tropical countries have a tremendous economic impact on production systems. Besides reducing production, this parasite can cause death in the most susceptible animals. The use of commercial acaricides has been the major method of control, but their misuse has led to tick resistance to many chemicals. More recently, vaccines have been used in some countries without solving the problem completely.
Recent reports identified DGAT1 (EC 184.108.40.206) harboring a lysine to alanine substitution (K232A) as a candidate gene with a strong effect on milk production traits. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of the DGAT1 K232A polymorphism in the main Zebu and Taurine breeds in Brazil as well as in Zebu x Taurine crossbreds as a potential QTL for marker-assisted selection.
We present estimates of heritability for carcass traits of cattle published in the scientific literature. Seventy-two papers published from 1962 to 2004, which reported estimates of heritability for carcass traits, were reviewed. The unweighted means of estimates of heritability for 14 carcass traits by slaughter end point (age, weight, and fat depth) were calculated.