Tumor necrosis factor receptor type II (TNF-RII) is a surface glycoprotein that can form a complex with TNF-α and participate in the body's immune response. Functions of TNF-RII are impaired in the pathogenesis of viral diseases. We analyzed sequences in the regulatory region of the TNF-RII gene in cattle. An attempt was also made to identify mutations that would have the greatest effect on the expression of the TNF-RII gene. Selected fragments of the regulatory region of the TNF-RII gene (5'-flanking region, fragments of intron 1 and 3'-UTR) were sequenced and analyzed.
Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) regulates high-density lipoprotein metabolism. The gene encoding PLTP is located on bovine chromosome 13. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) PLTP gene to detect novel mutations affecting economically important traits. Five SNPs were identified in the coding region (C7368T, G7453A, C9888T, and C9905T) and intron (A1750G). G7453A changes amino acid 362 of PLTP from alanine to threonine, and C9888T changes amino acid 491 of PLTP from proline to serine.
The CDIPT is crucial to the fatty acid metabolic pathway, intracellular signal transduction and energy metabolism in eukaryotic cells. We detected three SNPs at 3'-untranslated regions (UTR), named 3'-UTR_108 A > G, 3'-UTR_448 G > A and 3'-UTR_477 C > G, of the CDIPT gene in 618 Qinchuan cattle using PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing methods. At each of the three SNPs, we found three genotypes named as follows: AA, AB, BB (3'-UTR_108 A > G), CC, CD, DD (3'-UTR_448 G > A) and EE, EF, FF (3'-UTR_477 C > G.).
The Dapper1 protein plays important role in multiple developmental processes via negative modulation of the Wnt signaling pathway. We detected variations in Dapper1 in 1185 individuals from 5 Chinese cattle breeds and determined their effects on bovine body weight. Two silent mutations (g.8344C>T and g.8428C>T) in exon 6 along with two substitutions (g.10513A>G and g.10765C>G) in the 3'-untranslated region were detected with DNA pool sequencing and forced polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Papillomaviruses (PV) are double-stranded DNA viruses that can cause benignant and malignant tumors in amniotes. There are 13 types of bovine papillomavirus (BPV-1 to -13); they have been found in reproductive tissues and body fluids. Normally these viruses are detected in epithelial tissue. We looked for BPV in the blood of healthy cattle and cattle with papillomatosis, using PCR and RT-PCR. BPV types 1 and 2 were detected in 8/12 blood samples of asymptomatic bovines and in 8/9 samples from cattle with papillomatosis.
The relationship between the level of cell confluence near the plateau phase of growth and blastocyst yield following somatic cell cloning is not well understood. We examined the effect of distinct cell culture confluence levels on in vitro development of cloned bovine embryos. In vitro-matured bovine oocytes were manually bisected and selected by DNA staining. One or two enucleated hemi-cytoplasts were paired and fused with an adult skin somatic cell.
We examined the variation of the BMP4 gene in four Chinese indigenous cattle breeds and investigated the association of this polymorphism with body measurement traits. Using PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing, a polymorphic microsatellite was detected in the third exon of the bovine BMP4 gene in 459 samples from four Chinese indigenous cattle breeds, Qinchuan, Luxi, Nanyang, and Jiaxian red. The two alleles were named A and B. Allele frequencies of BMP4-A/B in the four breeds were 0.939/0.061, 0.928/0.072, 0.929/0.071, and 0.938/0.062, respectively.
Myopalladin (MYPN) is a multifunctional protein that maintains sarcomeric integrity and regulates Z-line structure. It is an important candidate gene for meat quality selection through marker-assisted selection. Using PCR-RFLP technology, we discovered a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A1795G in exon 9) of the MYPN gene. Allele frequencies of this SNP were investigated and evaluated by the χ2 test in 660 cattle populations in China; only the Nanyang population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
Body measurement traits are known to play numerous important roles in the assessment of productivity and economic value. They are influenced by several factors, among which genetic factors are predominant. The gene GDF10 is involved in skeletal morphogenesis and is associated with body measurement traits. It may be an important candidate gene for marker-assisted selection.
Somatostatins play a crucial role in the regulation of growth and development in vertebrates, especially muscle growth. We assessed the association of somatostatin gene polymorphisms with growth traits by PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism) and DNA sequencing methods in 694 individuals from six Chinese cattle breeds. A novel single nucleotide polymorphism, G126A, was detected, and significant associations were found with body length, body height, hip width, heart girth, and hucklebone width index.