Analysis of DNA polymorphisms allows for the genetic identification and precise discrimination of species with a narrow genetic base such as common bean. The primary objectives of the present study were to molecularly characterize commercial common bean varieties developed at various research institutions using microsatellite markers and to determine the degree of genetic diversity among the bean varieties analyzed. Fifty cultivars representing 12 grain classes and 64 genitors, i.e., accessions used to develop these cultivars, were characterized.
Microsporogenesis was evaluated in the Brachiaria humidicola collection of the Embrapa Beef Cattle Center, represented by 60 accessions. One accession (H121) presented an abnormal pattern of cytokinesis that had never been reported in this genus. Among 900 meiocytes analyzed in the first division, 10.7% underwent precocious and multiple cytokinesis in metaphase I, fractionating the genome and the cytoplasm into two or more parts. The expected cytokinesis after telophase I did not occur.
Three sexual interspecific hybrids of Brachiaria (HBGC076, HBGC009, and HBGC014) resulting from crosses between B. ruziziensis (female genitor) and B. decumbens and B. brizantha (male genitors) produced by Embrapa Beef Cattle in the 1980s were cytologically analyzed by conventional methods for meiotic studies. The cytogenetic analysis showed the occurrence of common meiotic abnormalities among them. The most frequent abnormalities were those related to irregular chromosome segregation due to polyploidy.