Breast cancer is the second most common origin of brain metastases, after lung cancer, and represents 14-20% of all cases. Abnormalities of chromosome 17 are important molecular genetic events in human breast cancer, and several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are located on this chromosome. In about half of all human cancers, the tumor suppressor gene TP53, located at 17p13.1, is either lost or mutated.
We designed a 2-stage study to investigate chemotactic factor receptor 5 (CCR5) gene expression in breast cancer tissues and axillary lymph nodes and analyze the association between the CCR5-Δ32 gene polymorphism and the clinical features and prognosis of breast cancer patients. The first stage examined 72 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma and axillary lymph node tissue, 50 cases of breast fibroadenoma tissue, and 40 cases of normal breast tissue.
BRCA1-interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1 (BRIP1) is a DNA helicase that influences the DNA repair ability and tumor suppressor function of BRCA1. Truncating BRIP1 mutations have been described as cancer susceptibility alleles. To evaluate BRIP1 polymorphisms as risk factors for breast cancer, we performed a detailed analysis of possible single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2048718, rs4988344, rs8077088, rs6504074, rs4986764, rs4986763, rs11079454, rs7213430, rs34289250, rs4988345, and rs12937080) using the MassARRAY system.
The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, coagulation, insulin resistance, and endothelial function. Polymorphisms of TNF-α have been associated with cancer. We examined the role of the -308G>A polymorphism in this gene by comparing the genotypes of 294 healthy Mexican women with those of 465 Mexican women with breast cancer. The observed genotype frequencies for controls and breast cancer patients were 1 and 14% for AA, 13 and 21% for GA, and 86 and 65% for GG, respectively.
Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene studies have revealed many novel loci associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility. We evaluated the effect of these colorectal cancer-associated variants on the risk of breast cancer in a Chinese Han population.
Detection of residual tumor cells in the circulation can provide prognostic as well as therapeutic information and help in identifying patients at high risk for developing metastases. Maspin and mammaglobin are two molecules that are specifically associated with breast cancer. We looked for mammaglobin and maspin transcripts in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer and evaluated their utility as a marker of the response to therapy. Maspin and mammaglobin transcripts were analyzed in 85 breast-cancer patients by nested RT-PCR, prior to and after treatment.
One of the limitations in the treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapy is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). A well-known mechanism responsible for drug resistance is over-expression of ABC-transporter genes such as MDR1. This gene encodes p-glycoprotein (P-gp), a transmembrane glycoprotein that transports many hydrophobic substrates and anti-cancer drugs out of the cell. MDR1 gene polymorphisms could alter the expression level of P-gp and consequently result in drug resistance.
The glutathione S-transferase (GST) family consists of phase II detoxification enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of toxic substances, such as chemotherapeutic agents, to glutathione. We examined whether GSTT1/GSTT1“null”, GSTM1/GSTM1“null” and GSTP1Ile105Ile/GSTP1Ile105Val polymorphisms are associated with different response rates to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of stage II and III breast cancer.
A high incidence of somatic mtDNA polymorphisms has been reported in a wide variety of human cancers; some of them have been proposed as markers for the early detection of breast cancer. However, little attention has been paid to the potential of germline mitochondrial sequence variations as genetic risk factors for cancer.
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 metabolizes arachidonic acid to biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, which significantly promote proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We looked for a possible association between human CYP2C19*3 gene polymorphism and breast cancer in the Chinese Han population. In a Chinese Han case-control study of breast cancer patients (N = 600) and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (N = 600), we investigated polymorphism in the CYP2C19 gene by PCR-RFLP analysis.