Body measurement and meat quality traits play important roles in the evaluation of productivity and economy in cattle, which are influenced by genes and environmental factors. PRKAG2, which encodes the γ2 regulatory subunit of AMPK, is associated with key metabolic pathways in muscle. We detected bovine PRKAG2 gene polymorphisms and analyzed their associations with body measurement and meat quality traits of cattle. DNA samples were taken from 578 Qinchuan cattle aged 18-24 months.
Body measurement traits
Beef cattle breeding programs focus on improving important economic traits, including growth rates, and meat quantity and quality. Molecular marker-assisted selection based on genetic variation represents a potential method for breeding genetically improved livestock with better economic traits. Smoothened (SMO) protein is a signal transducer that contributes to the regulation of both osteogenesis and adipogenesis through the hedgehog pathway.
Body measurement traits, influenced by genes and environmental factors, play numerous important roles in the value assessment of productivity and economy. There has been some indication that ANAPC13 influences adult height. We used PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing technology to identify polymorphisms in the ANAPC13 gene. A polymorphism in intron 1 (A > G at base 17) was identified and an additional polymorphic site (C > T at base 42) was also uncovered, which accompanied the previous polymorphism in more than 98% of the subjects.
The aim of this study was to determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of bovine Dickkopf homolog 4 (DKK4) are associated with body measurement traits in Qinchuan cattle. By using PCR-SSCP technology and DNA sequencing, we discovered 5 DKK4 SNPs in Qingchuan cattle, including -65G>A and -77G>T in the 5ꞌ-untranslated region, 1532C>G and 1533T>C in exon 2, and 2088C>T in exon 3. The sequencing map showed that 1532C>G and 1533T>C were in close linkage disequilibrium and were treated as 1532C>G-1533T>C in this study.
We examined the variation of the BMP4 gene in four Chinese indigenous cattle breeds and investigated the association of this polymorphism with body measurement traits. Using PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing, a polymorphic microsatellite was detected in the third exon of the bovine BMP4 gene in 459 samples from four Chinese indigenous cattle breeds, Qinchuan, Luxi, Nanyang, and Jiaxian red. The two alleles were named A and B. Allele frequencies of BMP4-A/B in the four breeds were 0.939/0.061, 0.928/0.072, 0.929/0.071, and 0.938/0.062, respectively.
Milk composition and body measurement traits, influenced by genes and environmental factors, play important roles in value assessments of efficiency and productivity in dairy goats. Lactoferrin (LF), involved in the efficient expression of protein in milk, is also an anabolic factor in skeletal tissue and a potent osteoblast survival factor. Therefore, it is an important candidate gene for milk composition and body measurement trait selection in marker-assisted selection.
Body measurement traits are known to play numerous important roles in the assessment of productivity and economic value. They are influenced by several factors, among which genetic factors are predominant. The gene GDF10 is involved in skeletal morphogenesis and is associated with body measurement traits. It may be an important candidate gene for marker-assisted selection.
Using PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing technology, we examined the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine MyoG gene with body measurement traits in 779 individuals of six native Chinese cattle breeds, namely Luxi, Luxi × Simmental crossbred, Nanyang, Xia’nan, Jiaxian red, and Qinchuan. A novel SNP, T314C, was detected. Allelic frequencies of MyoG-T/C in the six breeds were 0.8308/0.1692, 0.8774/0.1226, 0.8021/0.1979, 0.8209/0.1791, 0.8630/0.1370, 0.8044/0.1956, respectively.