B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1), which is also known as programmed death-L1, is an important member of the B7/CD28 costimulatory factor superfamily, which are emerging as important mediators of various host immune responses. B7-H1 is differentially expressed in various cell subsets and to different extents in human and murine cells. Human B7-H1 is constitutively expressed at low levels in dendritic cells and activated T cells (compared with high expression in activated murine T cells) and is highly expressed in monocytes and tumor cells.
The aim of this study was to determine how the function of human stromal antigen 2 (STAG2) plays an important role in proper chromosome separation. STAG2 mRNA in normal bladder cells and bladder tumor cells was evaluated by RT-PCR. The protein levels of STAG2 in normal bladder cells and bladder tumor cells were determined by western blot. A cell proliferation assay was used to measure the growth of tumor cells and STAG2-inhibited normal cells, and STAG2- inhibited normal cells were subjected to karyotype analysis.
The proteolytic region of cytokeratin-19, referred to as CYFRA21-1, is a soluble molecule present in the serum and other body fluids, and is considered a tumor marker in several neoplastic diseases. To examine whether urinary or serum samples containing CYFRA21-1 can be used as biomarkers for bladder cancer, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 3 case-control studies. In all studies considered, patients with bladder cancer had a higher CYFRA21-1 level than healthy subjects.
Mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3) gene are frequently found in bladder cancer, but their prognostic value remains controversial. To globally summarize the association between FGFR3 mutations and the grade and stage of bladder cancer, and to analyze the predictive role of FGFR3 mutations with respect to survival, eligible studies were identified and assessed for quality through multiple search strategies.
Bladder cancer is a common cancer worldwide and its incidence continues to increase. There are approximately 261,000 cases of bladder cancer resulting in 115,000 deaths annually. This study aimed to integrate bladder cancer genome copy number variation information and bladder cancer gene transcription level expression data to construct a causal-target module network of the range of bladder cancer-related genomes. Here, we explored the control mechanism underlying bladder cancer phenotype expression regulation by the major bladder cancer genes.
Several published articles have evaluated the association between the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) rs2294008 (C>T) polymorphism and bladder cancer risk, but the results remain inconclusive. In order to derive a more precise estimation of the association, we performed a meta-analysis of four case-control studies that included 9617 cases and 16,323 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association.
We investigated the effect of siRNA targeting enhancer of EZH2 on cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and apoptosis of human bladder cancer T24 cells. An siRNA-expressing plasmid targeting the EZH2 gene was transfected into T24 cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to detect EZH2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Proliferation, invasion, and migration of T24 cells were examined in vivo using MTT, wound healing, and transwell chamber migration assays, respectively.
We examined whether the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg399Gln polymorphism is a risk factor for bladder cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. We searched the Pubmed and Embase databases for study retrieval. This meta-analysis examined 16 case-control studies, including 892 prostate cancer cases and 1020 healthy controls.
The functional polymorphism Ser326Cys (rs1052133) in the human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) gene has been implicated in bladder cancer risk. However, reports of this association between the Ser326Cys polymorphism and bladder cancer risk are conflicting. In order to help clarify this relationship, we made a meta-analysis of seven case-control studies, summing 2521 cases and 2408 controls. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) to assess the strength of the association.
Survivin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are newly discovered tumor markers closely correlated with bladder cancer. We analyzed the expression of survivin and VEGF in paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from 78 patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) using an immunohistochemistry method. Normal bladder mucosae from 10 non-BTCC cases were also included as a control group. All patients were closely followed up for tumor recurrence after undergoing transurethral resection of bladder tumor procedures.