Atherosclerosis

Prediction of genetic risk factors of atherosclerosis using various bioinformatic tools

H. X. Wang, Zhao, Y. X., Wang, H. X., Zhao, Y. X., Wang, H. X., and Zhao, Y. X., Prediction of genetic risk factors of atherosclerosis using various bioinformatic tools, vol. 15, p. -, 2016.

The aim of this study was to identify potential markers of atherosclerosis development in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients. GSE13985 microarray data, generated using blood samples from 5 FH patients and 5 matched controls, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between FH and controls were identified and a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. Module and hub proteins were screened in this network.

Interleukin-4 regulates macrophage polarization via the MAPK signaling pathway to protect against atherosclerosis

X. N. Zhao, Li, Y. N., Wang, Y. T., Zhao, X. N., Li, Y. N., and Wang, Y. T., Interleukin-4 regulates macrophage polarization via the MAPK signaling pathway to protect against atherosclerosis, vol. 15, p. -, 2016.

Our study aimed to investigate the effects of interleukin-4 (IL-4) on macrophage polarization, as well as its role in the development of atherosclerosis. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, ox-LDL group, and ox-LDL + IL-4 groups. The expression of M1/M2 macrophage surface markers such as TNF-α, CD68, and CD206 were analyzed by western blot. Cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. Measurement of CD86/CD206 expression ratio (M1/M2 ratio) was performed via flow cytometry.

Effect of GBOT on blood lipid and blood glucose metabolism in rats with atherosclerosis

A. Rong, Borjihan, G., and Qiao, Y. J., Effect of GBOT on blood lipid and blood glucose metabolism in rats with atherosclerosis, vol. 14, pp. 7801-7810, 2015.

We observed the variation in in vivo blood lipid and blood glucose metabolism in rats with atherosclerosis after 5-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-1-piperidin-1-yl-penta-2,4-dien-1-one (GBOT) administration. Wistar rats aged 10 weeks received a high-fat diet to establish the atherosclerosis model. Metabolic indices related to blood lipid and blood glucose were measured before modeling and at 4 and 8 weeks after modeling. Liver fat levels in rats were measured at 8 weeks to analyze the relationship between liver fat and blood lipid levels.

Role of fibroblast growth factor-23 in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in peritoneal dialysis patients

Y. Zeng, Feng, S., Han, O. Y., Shen, H. Y., Jin, D. H., and Shi, Y. B., Role of fibroblast growth factor-23 in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in peritoneal dialysis patients, vol. 14, pp. 719-729, 2015.

Several previous studies have demonstrated that elevated levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) may be involved in atherosclerosis and contribute to the high mortality rate of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the precise role of FGF-23 in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in PD patients. Between April 2009 and January 2012, 62 PD patients and 25 control subjects were included in the study. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was conducted to test for plasma FGF-23 levels.

Decreased levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products in aortic valve calcification patients

H. Zheng, Li, Y., Xie, N., Huang, J. L., Xu, H. F., and Luo, M., Decreased levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products in aortic valve calcification patients, vol. 14, pp. 3775-3783, 2015.

The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) shows a close relationship with atherosclerosis. The goal of this study was to compare the levels of sRAGE in patients with and without aortic valve calcification and to investigate the relationship between them. After transthoracic echocardiographic examination, 120 male patients with aortic valve calcification and 120 age-matched male controls without aortic valve calcification were included in our study. sRAGE levels were compared between groups.

Expression of high-mobility group box protein 1 in diabetic foot atherogenesis

C. F. Tsao, Huang, W. T., Liu, T. T., Wang, P. W., Liou, C. W., Lin, T. K., Hsieh, C. J., and Weng, S. W., Expression of high-mobility group box protein 1 in diabetic foot atherogenesis, vol. 14, pp. 4521-4531, 2015.

The role of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been demonstrated in stroke and coronary artery disease but not in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). The pathogenesis of HMGB1 in acute and chronic vascular injury is also not well understood. We hypothesized that HMGB1 induces inflammatory markers in diabetic PAOD patients. We studied 36 diabetic patients, including 29 patients with PAOD, who had undergone amputation for diabetic foot and 7 nondiabetic patients who had undergone amputation after traumatic injury.

Effect of Xin Mai Jia on atherosclerosis in rats

P. Li, Pan, G. P., Jia, M., Wang, Q. Q., Guo, Z. G., Zhao, F. R., Lei, G. L., Wan, G. R., and Wan, G. M., Effect of Xin Mai Jia on atherosclerosis in rats, vol. 14, pp. 6018-6027, 2015.

We investigated the therapeutic effect of Xin Mai Jia (XMJ) on atherosclerosis (AS) in rats. Rat models of AS were estab­lished by peritoneally injecting vitamin D, feeding a high-fat diet, and inducing balloon injuries in rats. The stomachs of the rats were irrigated continuously for 10 weeks with XMJ. Blood lipid- and hemorheology-related indices of blood samples were detected. Pathological changes in the right common carotid arterial tissues were also determined.

Homocysteine induces blood vessel global hypomethylation mediated by LOX-1

X. L. Yang, Tian, J., Liang, Y., Ma, C. J., Yang, A. N., Wang, J., Ma, S. C., Cheng, Y., Hua, X., and Jiang, Y. D., Homocysteine induces blood vessel global hypomethylation mediated by LOX-1, vol. 13, pp. 3787-3799, 2014.

Homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor of atherosclerosis through its involvement with the methionine cycle. In this study, we aimed to determine the blood vessel global methylation rate in Hcy-induced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein-E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice, and to explore the possible mechanism of this change in endothelial cells. ApoE-/- mice were divided into a hyperlipidemia (HLP) group, a hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) group, and an HHcy + folate + vitamin B12 (HHcy+FA+VB) group. Wild-type C57BL/6J mice were prepared as controls.

Monocyte/macrophage β2-AR as a target of antisympathetic excitation-induced atherosclerotic progression

Y. L. Guo, Zhou, J. Q., Xiang, C. Q., Yang, W. H., Zhang, B., Dai, W. J., Liu, J. H., and Zheng, S. J., Monocyte/macrophage β2-AR as a target of antisympathetic excitation-induced atherosclerotic progression, vol. 13, pp. 8080-8088, 2014.

The aim of this study was to determine whether monocyte/macrophage β2-AR could act as the therapeutic target of antisympathetic excitation-induced atherosclerotic progression. Cultivated human THP-1 cells were divided into different groups and incubated with isoprenaline, metoprolol, propranolol or β2-AR blocker for 24 h, together with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Afterwards, each group was analyzed for C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) expression, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) release into medium and cell migration ability.

Role of mitochondrial DNA variants and copy number in diabetic atherogenesis

M. C. Chien, Huang, W. T., Wang, P. W., Liou, C. W., Lin, T. K., Hsieh, C. J., and Weng, S. W., Role of mitochondrial DNA variants and copy number in diabetic atherogenesis, vol. 11, pp. 3339-3348, 2012.

Hyperglycemia-induced reactive oxygen species production can cause diabetes and its complications, including atherosclerosis. The role of mitochondrial DNA variants and mitochondrial copy number in the pathogenesis of diabetic atherogenesis is not well understood. We examined 36 diabetic patients who had undergone amputation for diabetic foot and seven non-diabetic patients who had undergone amputation after traumatic injury. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted and used for sequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) relative to the Cambridge reference sequence were analyzed.

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