Studies investigating the association between the CAG repeat polymorphism and the risk of isolated hypospadias have reported conflicting results. The aim of this study was to quantitatively summarize the evidence for such a relationship. Two investigators independently searched the Medline, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang databases. Weighted mean difference and 95% confidence intervals for the CAG repeat polymorphism and isolated hypospadias were calculated using a random-effects model.
We studied a family with two cousins who were diagnosed with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, an X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the androgen receptor gene. A pedigree analysis and a molecular study using PCR and DNA sequencing clarified each female family member’s androgen receptor status and revealed a mutation consisting of the deletion of exon 2 and surrounding introns of the androgen receptor gene. Based on the relative nucleotide positions, we concluded that the deletion mutation in exon 2 and its surrounding introns was approximately 6000 to 7000 bp.
The androgen receptor (AR) is a protein encoded by the AR gene, which when mutated may affect spermatogenesis, the process in which spermatozoa are produced; thus, AR mutations could lead to male infertility. We examined exon 1 of the AR gene in men with idiopathic infertility. Blood or semen samples from 111 infertile, oligozoospermic (N = 31), asthenozoospermic (N = 23), teratozoospermic (N = 33), and azoospermic (N = 24) men were analyzed. The extracted DNA was amplified for the exon 1 region of the AR gene.