We investigated the protective effects of remote postconditioning (RPC) in the lungs of rats with deep hypothermia ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and the role of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling in this process. Forty-nine rats were randomly divided into a sham control group, deep hypothermia I/R group, RPC group, I/R+all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) group, I/R+RPC+ATRA group, I/R+tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) group, and I/R+RPC+tBHQ group.
All-trans retinoic acid
The ability of mammals to resist body fat accumulation is linked to their ability to expand the number of “brown adipocytes” within white fat depots. All-trans retinoic acid (t-RA) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) have been implicated in “browning-like” or “browning” programs, respectively. However, a PPARα-agonist (WY14643) failed to regulate the expression of the uncoupling protein 1(UCP1) gene unless combined with retinoic acid.