Table of contents: 2021
Knowledge of lactation curves in dairy cattle is essential for understanding the animal production in milk production systems. Genomic prediction of lactation curves represents the genetic pattern of milk production of the animals in the herd. In this context, we made genomic predictions of lactation curves through genome-wide selection (GWS) to characterize the genetic pattern of lactation traits in Girolando cattle based on parameters estimated by nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) models. Data of 1,822 milk control records from 226 Girolando animals genotyped for 37,673 single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed. Nine NLME models were compared to identify the equation with the best fit. The lactation traits estimated by the best model were submitted to GWS analysis, using the Bayesian LASSO method. Then, based on the genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) obtained, genomic predictions of lactation curves were constructed, and the genetic parameters were calculated. Wood's equation showed the best fit among the evaluated models. Heritabilities ranged from 0.09 to 0.29 for the seven lactation variables (initial production, rates of increase and decline, lactation peak, time to peak yield, persistence and total production). The correlations among GEBVs ranged from -0.85 to 0.98. The concordances between the best animals selected according to the selected traits were greater when the correlations between GEBVs for these traits were also high. Consequently, the methodology allowed us to identify the best nonlinear model and to construct the genetic lactation curves of a Girolando cattle population, as well as to assess the differences between animals and the association between lactation variables.
Peach is a temperate fruit species that is cultivated under various edaphoclimatic conditions all over the world. In Brazil, in the early 1950s, peaches were planted only in São Paulo state and in the Southern states, and the harvest period was restricted to 15 days. Currently, mainly due to peach breeding programs, it is cultivated in subtropical areas and even in high altitude tropical areas, with a harvest period of over 100 days. Knowledge of genetic, phenotypic and environmental parameters that influence characters of economic importance is crucial for guiding breeding programs. The objectives of this study were to estimate the heritability of phenological characters, to evaluate their distribution within populations, to test the possible existence of maternal effect and to evaluate the relationship of these traits with brown rot incidence (Monilinia fructicola). The study was performed in Pelotas, RS, Brazil during 2015-2016 to 2017-2018 seasons. Sixteen first generation (F1) progenies were evaluated, 10 of them being reciprocal crosses. All genotypes were cultivated in the same area, under the same cultural practices (without fungicide application). Full bloom was considered when more than 50% of flowers were open, and the harvest, when more than 10 fruits reached commercial maturity, the fruit development period being calculated by the difference between full bloom and harvest dates. Brown rot incidence was estimated by the percentage of fruits with symptoms. Broad-sense heritability estimates for full bloom date, harvest date, and fruit development period were high (95 to 98%), and narrow-sense heritabilities were medium to high (65 to 72%). A segregation study of these traits suggests a maternal effect on their heritability, mainly for full bloom and harvest date. The three phenological characters were significantly correlated, and only harvest date had a negative and significant correlation (-0.12) with brown rot incidence.