Variability of fruits and seeds of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) genotypes cultivated in northern Mato Grosso State, Brazil.
Due to the increasing popularity of consuming only plant products, including vegetarianism and more recently veganism, vegetables and fruits have gradually become an increasingly important component of the human diet, worldwide. The large diversity of Brazilian tropical fruits, such as murici, Byrsonima crassifolia, (Malpighiaceae), associated with a dearth of information concerning this and other exotic species, has stimulated research on techniques to obtain increases in productivity, inserting these fruit species into regional and national agribusiness. We evaluated the variability of B. crassifolia genotypes and quantified the relative contribution of 12 morphological traits of its fruits and seeds. Ripe fruits were collected from 20 different genotypes (trees. The fruits were collected during the harvest season from December 2017 to January 2018. Twenty fruits of each genotype were selected; that were visually appealing, whole and without deformation, totaling 400 samples. We measured the length, width, thickness, weight, and volume of the fruits, the length, width, thickness and weight of the seed and the thickness and weight of the pulp. The data were obtained with a digital caliper and the degrees brix measured with a refractometer. Multivariate analyses were made with UPGMA hierarchical methods and Tocher optimization, using the standardized average Euclidean distance as a measure of dissimilarity, and principal components analysis (PCA). Four distinct groups were formed based on the data. The first three principal components explained 87.51% of the total variation. The brix measurement was the trait with the greatest contribution to the differentiation of the genotypes.