Research Article

Protein Z gene variants and risk of Idiopathic Recurrent Pregnancy Loss in Saudi Arabian women

Published: November 29, 2017
Genet. Mol. Res. 16(4): gmr16039834 DOI:
Cite this Article:
W. Zammiti, S. Saidi, A. Shaman, F.Mohammed A. Duhier (2017). Protein Z gene variants and risk of Idiopathic Recurrent Pregnancy Loss in Saudi Arabian women. Genet. Mol. Res. 16(4): gmr16039834.


Background: Protein Z (PZ) is a vitamin K-dependent
plasma glycoprotein, it plays a key role in the physiologic inhibition
of coagulation by acting as a cofactor in the inactivation of factor Xa.
The relationship between PZ gene polymorphisms and pregnancy
loss is controversial. To address this, we investigate the association
between PZ (rs3024718, rs3024719, rs3024731, rs3024778 and
rs3024772) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and idiopathic
recurrent pregnancy loss (IRPL) in in women from Tabuk region
(North western region, Saudi Arabia).
Methods: A case control study, including Sixty-three women with at
least three unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) were selected
and matched with seventy-eight healthy and fertile women
(controls). SNP genotyping was carried out by allelic discrimination
using real time PCR.
Results: The outcome was that the minor allele frequencies (MAF)
are 0.23 vs 0.20, 0.24 vs 0.19, 0.02 vs 0.02, 0.26 vs 0.21, and 0.02 vs
0.01 respectively for rs3024718 A/G, rs024719 G/A, rs3024778
G/A, rs3024731 G/A, and rs3024772 A/G PZ polymorphisms. The
genotype distribution was similar between women with RPL and
control women (P>0.05) and none of the tested SNPs were associated
with RPL under co-dominant, dominant, or recessive genetic models.
The lack of association was also confirmed by haplotypes analysis
showing an absence of RPL risk with the constructed haplotypes.
Conclusion: It was concluded that the studied PZ polymorphisms are
not associated with the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss in the studied