Research Article

Prevalence of human papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections in Amazonian women with normal and abnormal cytology.


Sexually transmitted infections are an important cause of morbidity among sexually active women worldwide, and have been implicated as cofactors in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. We investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), and accessed the diversity of HPV in women with normal and abnormal cytology in Manaus, Brazil. We used polymerase chain reaction and HPV genotyping by direct sequencing. The chi-square test was used to calculate the absolute and relative frequencies of the categorical variables, and Fisher's test was used when P < 0.05. The level of significance was set at 5%. All statistical analyses were performed using R 2.9.0. There were statistically significant differences in age (P = 0.0395), education level (P = 0.0131), sexual partners (P = 0.0211), condom use (P = 0.0039), marital status (P < 0.0001), and pregnancy (P = 0.0003) between the normal and abnormal groups. HPV DNA was found in 36.56 and 93.88% of subjects in the normal and abnormal groups, respectively. A total of 19 genotypes were detected; HPV16 was the most common, followed by HPV58. The percentages of TV and CT DNA were 18.04 and 9.02% in the normal group, respectively. The percentages of HPV/TV and HPV/CT coinfection were 12.5% each in women with normal cytology. These findings improve our understanding of HPV, CT, and TV, and the distribution of HPV types, which may be relevant to vaccination strategies for protecting women from the north of Brazil from cervical cancers and precancerous lesions.