Multivariate selection of nutritional aspects of soybean in an F5 segregating family
The soybean cultivars currently available for cultivation are used mainly due to their productive and phytosanitary characteristics, without defining specific centesimal compositions as an ideotype. Our study aimed to contribute to this aspect and to identify profiles and establish similarities between the genotypes, taking into account components such as starch, lipids and mineral materials in 54 soybean genotypes. The experiment was conducted in the 2017/2018 agricultural year in Campos Borges, RS. The treatments consisted of four cultivars, considered pure lineages, and 50 F5 segregating families (theoretical level of inbreeding of 94% with approximately 6% heterozygosis). The experimental units were composed of a sowing line five meters in length, spaced 0.45 m. The characters of agronomic interest measured in the grains collected from 10 random plants were: protein, humidity, lipids, total fibers, mineral material and starch. The percentages of the characters of agronomic interest: proteins, lipids, fibers, mineral matter, starch and oil were determined in intact soybeans by the technique of reflectance in the near infrared. There was genetic dissimilarity among the 54 soybean genotypes. The protein character was the most decisive factor for genetic variability, based on Singh's relative contribution. Using patterns such as standardized Euclidean mean distance, Tocher's optimized method and the UPGMA clustering method, it was possible to show patterns in the genotype clusters. Based on these results, we can define crosses between accessions with genetic potential for the formation of genotypes with superior centesimal characteristics.