A large-scale analysis study on the clinical and viral characteristics of hepatitis B infection with concurrence of hepatitis B surface or E antigens and their corresponding antibodies.
Concurrent detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs antibody or hepatitis B surface E antigen (HBeAg) and anti-HBe antibody in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is well established. However, the clinical implications of these proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 124,865 patients with chronic CHB infection were analyzed. Viral genotypes were determined by nested polymerase chain reaction. A chemiluminescent assay was applied to measure HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, and HBcAb in sera. Among 124,865 patients with CHB infection, 324 (0.3%) were concurrently positive for HBsAg and anti-HBs, and 206 (0.2%) were concurrently positive for HBeAg and anti-HBe. The HBeAg+/anti-HBe+ group was composed of younger patients (P < 0.05). Subgenotype B2 was prevalent in HBV patients concurrently positive for HBeAg and anti-HBe, while HBV patients positive for both HBsAg and anti-HBs exhibited the C2 subgenotype. Among 530 concurrent patients, 126 (39%) HBsAg+/anti-HBs+ patients were in the low-replication phase, and 62 (19%) were in the reactivation phase; 87 (42%) HBeAg+/anti-HBe+, and 19 (6%) HBsAg+/anti-HBs+ patients were in the immune clearance phase. In this large-scale analysis, the clinical and viral characteristics of HBV infections with concurrent HBs Ag/antibody or HBe Ag/antibody presentations have been examined, and the results may contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of CHB patients.