Identification of lipopeptides produced by Bacillus subtilis Czk1 isolated from the aerial roots of rubber trees.
We obtained a strain of Bacillus subtilis, which we named Czk1, from the aerial roots of rubber trees. This bacterial isolate exhibits strong antagonistic activity against Ganoderma pseudoferreum, Phellinus noxius, Helicobasidium compactum, Rigidoporus lignosus, Sphaerostilbe repens, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Our earlier research has shown that the antagonistic activity of a fermentation supernatant Czk1 isolate produces a complex mixture of lipopeptides. In this study, we used methanol to extract crude lipopeptides, purified them using a Sephadex G-25 column, cloned the lipopeptide genes, and analyzed purified fractions by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to identify the lipopeptides from B. subtilis strain Czk1. The cloned lipopeptide genes included those that encode the enzymes lpa, ituD, sfp, and fenB. The crude lipopeptides were purified and found in five fractions. Further analysis revealed that five fractions of the purified composition contained members of the surfactin, iturin, fengycin, and bacillomycin families of antibiotics. This suggests that these lipopeptides from strain Czk1 have potential as plant disease biocontrol agents.