Hsp70 gene polymorphisms in farmed marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei populations exposed to white spot disease and infectious myonecrosis.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the best genetic markers for associative studies of the immune system in invertebrates. In the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, SNPs linked to disease resistance have been reported for some genes, such as hemocyanin, anti-lipopolysaccharide factor, and heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70). In the present study, polymorphisms in the Hsp70 gene were investigated among three commercial L. vannamei populations bred in Northeast and South Brazil. The first population withstood a strong white spot disease outbreak; the second population suffered extended exposure to infectious myonecrosis; the third population was a high health population, which was experimentally infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the present study. All five previously known SNPs (C661A, T712C, C782T, C892T, and C1090T) were detected in the coding region of Hsp70, by Sanger sequencing of 119 shrimp. Significant differences in genetic and genotype frequencies among populations were observed for C661A, C892T, and C1090T. In the population submitted to WSSV challenge, no frequency differences were found between dead and surviving shrimp groups. These results indicate that the Hsp70 polymorphisms described here cannot be associated with WSSV tolerance. However, significant frequency differences were observed for the population exposed to infectious myonecrosis virus. This is the first time that L. vannamei Hsp70 gene polymorphisms were studied in correlation with these important shrimp viruses.