Genotyping and morphometric analysis of Kazakhstani grapevine cultivars versus Asian and European cultivars
Grapes are an important fruit crop in Kazakhstan. Modern viticulture requires inclusion of traditional morphological and agronomical methods in the development and sustaining of grapevine culture as well as molecular approaches. We used molecular markers and leaf shape analysis to characterize grapevine cultivars developed in Kazakhstan compared with European and Asian varieties. A set of 17 landmarks describing grapevine leaf shape were analyzed using generalized procruste and principal component analyses in order to evaluate shape variation among cultivars. Mean leaf shapes were obtained for 94 cultivars. Outer tip pattern had the most impact on leaf shape variation. Principal component analysis revealed the complex nature of grapevine leaf shape variation and demonstrated the differential impact of leaf landmarks on shape variation. The standard set of six simple sequence repeat markers used for molecular genotyping was sufficient to differentiate each of the cultivars by a distinct allelic profile. Kazakh grapevine cultivars were found to be an admixture of European and Asian varieties. However, for some cultivars, there was no confirmation of identity with respect to pedigree either by bibliography or comparison with the Vitis International Variety Catalogue. Also, 11 markers for resistance-associated alleles in corresponding loci (RUN1, REN1, REN3, Rpv3, Rpv10, and Rpv12) were applied to characterize Kazakhstan and some parent cultivars with different levels of resistance to mildew pathogens.