Genotype-environment interaction for the sensory profile of Coffea arabica lines in high temperature regions in the Western Amazon
The aim of this study was to select Coffea arabica lines with improved adaptability to tropical edaphic conditions. Competitive trials were set up at three locations of the states of Rondônia and Acre. Each trial was composed of 21 lines in the F5 generation and four reference cultivars evaluated as controls. To analyze beverage quality, six liters of coffee fruit at the M3 maturity stage was collected for each line in the environments of Alta Floresta do Oeste, RO (E1), Porto Velho, RO (E2), and Rio Branco, AC (E3). On the same day, after collection, the fruit was washed and placed to dry (natural processing) in full sun over canvas, until the samples reached 11-12% moisture. Sensory analysis of the samples was carried out by three judges/cuppers (Q Grader), according to the sensory analysis method of the Specialty Coffee Association of America. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of the genotype x environment interaction was significant, indicating differentiated performance of the lines grown in the different locations. Environments E2 and E3 were not favorable for beverage quality, whereas environment E1 showed better conditions for production of specialty coffees. In sensory analysis, six lines had higher final beverage quality scores than the controls. Line 2 had a final score of 80, line 11 had a final score of 79, and line 12 had a final score of 77. In addition to good beverage quality, lines 2, 11 and 12 also had yields higher than 30 bags ha-1 in the average of three harvest periods, indicating the possibility of selecting lines with improved adaptation to tropical regions.