Genetic parameters and multi-trait selection of white oats for forage
Avena sativa is the sixth most produced cereal in the world. It is widely used for human consumption. Due to the bromatological quality of its forage, it is used for direct grazing, hay and silage. Due to the large number of interesting characteristics of forage white oats, the selection of unique characteristics becomes difficult and expensive for breeders. In this sense, the use of analysis with multiple characteristics can facilitate the process. Therefore, the objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters of morphological characteristics, productivity, and quality of forages, as well as to define multiple characteristics that assist in the selection of promising white oat genotypes with forage profile through factor analysis. Field trials were carried out during the agricultural year of 2013 in the municipality of Capão do Leão, RS. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with treatments arranged in four replications. The treatments corresponded to the genotypes CHIARASUL (G1), FAEM006 (G2), BARBARASUL (G3), BRISASUL, (G4) CGF03006 (G5), CGF07023-1 (G6), CGF07-74 027-1 (G7), CGF07033 (G8), CGF07033-1 (G9), CGF07041 (G10), CGF0705-7 (G11), CGF07060-2 (G12) and CGF07060-3 (G13). The characteristics analyzed were: plant height, leaf area, weight of fresh plants, weight of dry plants, number of tillers and levels of nitrogen, crude protein, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, manganese and iron. The data were submitted to the normality test and to various components of variance. Statistical analyses were performed using Selegen®, SAS® and Genes® software. The white oat genotypes expressed high genetic variability and possibility of selection for leaf area, fresh forage mass, dry forage mass, number of tillers and calcium content. Simultaneously the magnesium content with multiple traits + zinc content, dry matter + fresh mass, nitrogen content + calcium content, crude protein + potassium content and number of tillers, showing potential to select genotypes of interest for genetic improvement.