Genetic diversity of mitochondrial control region (D-Loop) polymorphisms in Coilia ectenes taihuensis inhabiting Taihu Lake, China.
Coilia ectenes is a commercially important fishery species in China. C. ectenes taihuensis is an endemic and dominant species found in Taihu Lake of China. When compared with C. ectenes, C. ectenes taihuensis lacks anadromous behavior, and can independently grow and reproduce in Taihu Lake. In this study, the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) sequences were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of C. ectenes taihuensis. Sixty-eight individuals collected from 4 localities in Taihu Lake were examined. Results indicated that in the 887-bp D-loop region, seventy-seven (8.68%) sites were variant, contributing to 53 distinct haplotypes. Although the population haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.971 to 1.000) was generally high, the nucleotide diversity (π = 0.616 to 0.731%) was relatively low among the 4 populations. Additionally, the genetic distances ranged from 0.62 to 0.74% within the populations and from 0.67 to 0.74% between the populations. The neighbor-joining tree indicated that a distinct distribution of phylogenetic structure existed among haplotypes. Analysis of molecular variance and F statistics suggested that a divergence existed among populations in 4 localities, indicating that gene communication might have occurred among those populations. Furthermore, neutral tests and analysis of mismatch distribution reflected that C. ectenes taihuensis might have undergone a population expansion during the evolution process. Our study showed the population genetic diversity and structure of C. ectenes taihuensis. Results from this study might be helpful in the development and protection of fishery resource within the localities in Taihu Lake in future.