Research Article

Genetic divergence among landraces and improved common bean genotypes in the central-southern region of Mato Grosso state in Brazil

Abstract

The common bean is widely distributed throughout Brazil and within Mato Grosso state. It has wide genetic variability and adaptability to various environmental conditions. We evaluated the genetic divergence and agronomic performance of common bean genotypes in order to initiate a bean breeding program in the region of Cáceres, MT. We included 58 genotypes (40 traditional accessions, 14 lines and four cultivars) using a randomized block design with three replications, at Empresa de Pesquisa, Assistência e Extensão Rural do Mato Grosso, evaluating 10 morphological and agronomic characteristics. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis distance; we used the Tocher and UPGMA grouping methods to group to the genotypes. Through analysis of variance, we detected significant differences at 1% probability for all traits. The shortest genetic distance was found between genotypes 13 and 26 (= 1.51) as the most similar, while 20 and 4 ( = 346.00) were the most dissimilar. The Tocher and UPGMA clustering methods were similar in grouping the genotypes, with the most divergence in different groups. Crossing of the earliest genotypes (11, 13 and 16) with the improved genotypes (43 and 51) resulted in the greatest heterotic effect, increasing the likelihood of the emergence of superior genotypes in the progenies, which is beneficial for the initiation of the bean breeding program for the Cerrado region of Cáceres in Mato Grosso.

 

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