Development of TRAP primers for Ricinus communis L.
The objective of this article was to develop TRAP (target region amplification polymorphism) primers for castor bean, with the goal of making functional markers available for genetic studies about the species. To do this, oligonucleotides were designed based on ESTs, obtained from the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) databank, which code enzymes involved in metabolic routes of fatty acid synthesis, ricin synthesis, and resistance to castor bean pathogens. The forward primers were designed with the help of the Primer3 software and, for the reverse, six arbitrary primers were used. To standardize the amplification reactions, the following criteria were used to select the primers: sizes between 18 and 20 bp, guanine/cytosine (GC) in the range of 40 to 60%, and average annealing temperature between 55° and 62°C. The design quality of the primers was verified using the Net Primer application. Fifty-six primers were designed, which had an average GC percentage of 53.2%. A total of 336 combinations were obtained using the 56 fixed and 6 arbitrary primers. Based on polymerase chain reaction, 330 combinations (89%) presented good amplification patterns for the genomic DNA of castor bean. The size of the fragments amplified varied between 50 and 2072 bp. The TRAP primers designed and validated in this study are the first for castor bean and represent a significant increase in the molecular markers for this species.