Brazilian strain of bovine respiratory coronavirus is derived from dual enteric and respiratory tropism.
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a pathogen related to enteric and respiratory diseases in cattle worldwide. Enteric (BECoV) strains of BCoV are predominant in South America, and genetic investigations have been conducted to identify its relationship with isolates of respiratory origin (BRCoV). In this study, we used a BRCoV strain (BR-UEL11) derived from an outbreak of respiratory disease in feedlot cattle in southern Brazil, and compared the partial sequence of the polymorphic region of Spike (which was detected and sequenced by two distinct reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions) with those of other BCoV strains. The phylogenetic relationship of BR-UEL11 with Brazilian BCoV, which is associated with calf diarrhea and winter dysentery (enteric, BECoV; respiratory, BRCoV), and classical reference prototypes was analyzed. The analysis showed that the BRCoV strains from Brazil clustered with a clade that was distinct from most isolates associated with calf diarrhea (BECoV) and ancestral prototype strains such as Mebus, Nebraska, and LYVB. Furthermore, the BRCoV strains from Brazil clustered with a clade that contained recent strains associated with winter dysentery, showing 98-99% nucleotide identity with those strains. These results suggested that the Brazilian BCoV evolved from being solely enteric to a dual enteric and respiratory tropic virus.