Research Article

Evaluation of the mutagenic activity of hydroxyurea on the G1-S-G2 phases of the cell cycle: an in vitro study

Abstract

Hydroxyurea is considered an antineoplastic drug, which also plays an important role in the treatment of sickle cell anemia patients. We evaluated and compared the clastogenic and cytotoxic effects of hydroxyurea, using chromosomal aberrations and mitotic index, respectively, as endpoints. In vitro short-term cultures of lymphocytes were exposed to several concentrations of this drug, at various cell cycle phases. There was a significant increase in the cytotoxicity of hydroxyurea at G1 and G1/S as well in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Hydroxyurea did not significantly increase chromosome aberrations. There was an S-dependent cytotoxic effect of hydroxyurea, which is expected based on the known activity of hydroxyurea as an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase.

Hydroxyurea is considered an antineoplastic drug, which also plays an important role in the treatment of sickle cell anemia patients. We evaluated and compared the clastogenic and cytotoxic effects of hydroxyurea, using chromosomal aberrations and mitotic index, respectively, as endpoints. In vitro short-term cultures of lymphocytes were exposed to several concentrations of this drug, at various cell cycle phases. There was a significant increase in the cytotoxicity of hydroxyurea at G1 and G1/S as well in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Hydroxyurea did not significantly increase chromosome aberrations. There was an S-dependent cytotoxic effect of hydroxyurea, which is expected based on the known activity of hydroxyurea as an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase.

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