Identification and characterization of the 14-3-3 gene family in switchgrass.
Members of the 14-3-3 family of proteins are conserved regulatory proteins that are widely found in eukaryotes and play crucial roles in diverse physiological processes, including responses to different stresses. Although genome-wide analysis of 14-3-3 proteins has been performed in a few plant species, it has not been performed in switchgrass. In this study, we identified 21 switchgrass 14-3-3 proteins (designated PvGF14a to PvGF14u) and examined genes for improved stress tolerance in this species. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to demonstrate that PvGF14 proteins can be divided into six groups, and that PvGF14 proteins belonging to each class exhibit similar gene structure. A phylogenetic analysis of PvGF14 proteins among switchgrass, Arabidopsis, and rice was conducted. Ten PvGF14 proteins were found to be orthologous to several abiotic stresses, and these were particularly responsive proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that PvGF14a, PvGF14k, PvGF14l, and PvGF14m may play significant roles in the regulation of lignin metabolism, and that PvGF14r may participate in flower development. Taken together, these data suggest that PvGF14 proteins may be involved in various biosynthesis.