Research Article

Effects of ganglioside GM1 and neural growth factor on neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation

Published: August 05, 2016
Genet. Mol. Res. 15(3): gmr8376 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4238/gmr.15038376

Abstract

Neurogenesis, recovery from nerve injury, neurodegeneration, and Parkinson’s disease affect people’s health, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigated the effect of ganglioside GM1 and neural growth factor (NGF) on neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation in vitro to provide a scientific basis for comprehensive treatment of nervous system diseases via NSC application. As widely applied methods of relatively high accuracy, cell counts and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were used to assess NSC proliferation. In addition, western blotting was employed to determine NSC differentiation. Cell counts and MTT assays demonstrated that in epidermal growth factor (EGF)- and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-containing medium, a high concentration of GM1, but not NGF, significantly elevated NSC proliferation. In NSC cultures lacking EGF and bFGF, cell counts and MTT values were significantly increased compared to those in the negative control group on days 4, 7, and 10 after GM1 (25, 100, and 200 ng/mL) but not NGF (25, 50, 100, and 200 ng/mL) treatment. Western blotting revealed significantly increased expression of nestin (an NSC marker) in NSCs treated with GM1, and upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (a glial cell marker) and neuron-specific enolase (a neuron marker) in those administered NGF. Our results suggest that GM1 and NGF induce NSC proliferation and differentiation, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner.

Neurogenesis, recovery from nerve injury, neurodegeneration, and Parkinson’s disease affect people’s health, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigated the effect of ganglioside GM1 and neural growth factor (NGF) on neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation in vitro to provide a scientific basis for comprehensive treatment of nervous system diseases via NSC application. As widely applied methods of relatively high accuracy, cell counts and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were used to assess NSC proliferation. In addition, western blotting was employed to determine NSC differentiation. Cell counts and MTT assays demonstrated that in epidermal growth factor (EGF)- and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-containing medium, a high concentration of GM1, but not NGF, significantly elevated NSC proliferation. In NSC cultures lacking EGF and bFGF, cell counts and MTT values were significantly increased compared to those in the negative control group on days 4, 7, and 10 after GM1 (25, 100, and 200 ng/mL) but not NGF (25, 50, 100, and 200 ng/mL) treatment. Western blotting revealed significantly increased expression of nestin (an NSC marker) in NSCs treated with GM1, and upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (a glial cell marker) and neuron-specific enolase (a neuron marker) in those administered NGF. Our results suggest that GM1 and NGF induce NSC proliferation and differentiation, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner.