Research Article

Ability of HMGB1 protein to bind to intrinsically bent and non-bent DNA sites in the AMPD2 gene amplicon

Published: June 10, 2016
Genet. Mol. Res. 15(2): gmr7441 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4238/gmr.15027441
Cite this Article:
(2016). Ability of HMGB1 protein to bind to intrinsically bent and non-bent DNA sites in the AMPD2 gene amplicon. Genet. Mol. Res. 15(2): gmr7441. https://doi.org/10.4238/gmr.15027441
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Abstract

HMGB-like proteins are architectural chromatin factors, and their function is heavily dependent on their ability to interact with DNA (especially non-canonical DNA structures). HMGB1 is involved in many DNA processes, and dysregulation of HMGB protein expression has profound effects on cellular transcription, resulting in severe developmental defects as well as cancer. During DNA replication, elements that form the origin are still not well defined in metazoans. Sites with A (adenine) or T (thymine) repeats cause intrinsic curvatures in the DNA and are described to be involved in the replication machinery by providing binding sites to replication proteins. As a result, the DNA molecule shows intrinsically bent DNA sites, caused by periodic repeats of 2 or more As/Ts (dA/dT) as well as intrinsically non-bent DNA sites (INBDs), due to a succession of curvatures that cancel each other. In the present study, we mapped 11 INBDSs present in the AMPD2 gene that are related to each replication origin (oriGNAI3, oriC, oriB, and oriA). Following characterization of INBDSs, we tested the ability of HMGB1 to bind to the bent (b1, b2, b4a, b4b, b5, b6, b7, and b8) and non-bent DNA fragments (nb7, nb11, nb1, nb2, nb4, and nb5) via electrophoretic mobility shift assays. All fragments showed efficient binding to HMGB1. However, the non-bent DNA fragments nb2, nb4, and nb5 showed slightly reduced binding efficiency.

HMGB-like proteins are architectural chromatin factors, and their function is heavily dependent on their ability to interact with DNA (especially non-canonical DNA structures). HMGB1 is involved in many DNA processes, and dysregulation of HMGB protein expression has profound effects on cellular transcription, resulting in severe developmental defects as well as cancer. During DNA replication, elements that form the origin are still not well defined in metazoans. Sites with A (adenine) or T (thymine) repeats cause intrinsic curvatures in the DNA and are described to be involved in the replication machinery by providing binding sites to replication proteins. As a result, the DNA molecule shows intrinsically bent DNA sites, caused by periodic repeats of 2 or more As/Ts (dA/dT) as well as intrinsically non-bent DNA sites (INBDs), due to a succession of curvatures that cancel each other. In the present study, we mapped 11 INBDSs present in the AMPD2 gene that are related to each replication origin (oriGNAI3, oriC, oriB, and oriA). Following characterization of INBDSs, we tested the ability of HMGB1 to bind to the bent (b1, b2, b4a, b4b, b5, b6, b7, and b8) and non-bent DNA fragments (nb7, nb11, nb1, nb2, nb4, and nb5) via electrophoretic mobility shift assays. All fragments showed efficient binding to HMGB1. However, the non-bent DNA fragments nb2, nb4, and nb5 showed slightly reduced binding efficiency.