Research Article

Effects of nucleotide usage on the synonymous codon usage patterns of biofilm-associated genes in Haemophilus parasuis

Published: June 10, 2016
Genet. Mol. Res. 15(2): gmr7226 DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15027226

Abstract

To provide a new perspective on the evolutionary characteristics shaping the genetic diversity of Haemophilus parasuis biofilms, the relative synonymous codon usage values, codon usage bias values, effective number of codons (ENC) values, codon adaptation index (CAI) values, and the base components were calculated. Our objective was to implement a comparative analysis to evaluate the dynamic evolution of biofilm-associated genes in H. parasuis. The analysis of genetic diversity provides evidence that some biofilm-associated genes have similar genetic features. However, other genes show some variations in genetic direction. Furthermore, preferential selection of the synonymous codons and amino acids is apparent in biofilm-associated genes. Additionally, the ENC and CAI data from this study all strongly suggested that biofilm-associated genes may depend on deoptimization to adapt to environmental changes, and the mutation effect of biofilm-associated genes in H. parasuis plays an important role in shaping the genetic features. Our results reveal that the mutations of biofilm-associated genes form a set of sophisticated strategies for combating the environmental changes arising from the host cell in the evolution of H. parasuis.

To provide a new perspective on the evolutionary characteristics shaping the genetic diversity of Haemophilus parasuis biofilms, the relative synonymous codon usage values, codon usage bias values, effective number of codons (ENC) values, codon adaptation index (CAI) values, and the base components were calculated. Our objective was to implement a comparative analysis to evaluate the dynamic evolution of biofilm-associated genes in H. parasuis. The analysis of genetic diversity provides evidence that some biofilm-associated genes have similar genetic features. However, other genes show some variations in genetic direction. Furthermore, preferential selection of the synonymous codons and amino acids is apparent in biofilm-associated genes. Additionally, the ENC and CAI data from this study all strongly suggested that biofilm-associated genes may depend on deoptimization to adapt to environmental changes, and the mutation effect of biofilm-associated genes in H. parasuis plays an important role in shaping the genetic features. Our results reveal that the mutations of biofilm-associated genes form a set of sophisticated strategies for combating the environmental changes arising from the host cell in the evolution of H. parasuis.

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