Research Article

Cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of Ebenus boissieri Barbey on breast cancer cells

Published: March 18, 2016
Genet. Mol. Res. 15(1): gmr7766 DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15017766

Abstract

We aimed to determine the cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of the roots and aerial parts of Ebenus boissieri (EB) on breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells and the non-cancerous human embryonic kidney cell line, 293T. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay, trypan blue exclusion, and Live/Dead Viability/Cytotoxicity assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by measuring the activity of caspase-2, 3, 6, 8, and 9. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-g release was assayed by ELISA, and protein expression of caspase-3, TNF-a, and IFN-g was determined by western blot. The results of this study revealed that MDA-MB231 cell viability was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the aerial and root extract of EB at 72 h with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 41.1 ± 2.76 and 65 ± 1.09 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, neither the aerial nor the root extracts of this plant inhibited the proliferation of 293T cells at doses up to 1000 μg/mL. There was a time-dependent increase in caspase activity, especially caspase-3 and caspase-9. The levels of TNF-aand IFN-g significantly increased in MDA-MB231 cells treated with aerial extract. In conclusion, the extracts of EB induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells by altering the levels of caspases, TNF-a, and IFN-g. The components and precise modes of action of EB have not yet been determined. However, potential antitumor and immunomodulatory activity was observed along with selectivity against cancer cells in vitro, suggesting that hydroalcoholic extracts of this plant are worthy of additional study.

We aimed to determine the cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of the roots and aerial parts of Ebenus boissieri (EB) on breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells and the non-cancerous human embryonic kidney cell line, 293T. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay, trypan blue exclusion, and Live/Dead Viability/Cytotoxicity assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by measuring the activity of caspase-2, 3, 6, 8, and 9. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-g release was assayed by ELISA, and protein expression of caspase-3, TNF-a, and IFN-g was determined by western blot. The results of this study revealed that MDA-MB231 cell viability was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the aerial and root extract of EB at 72 h with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 41.1 ± 2.76 and 65 ± 1.09 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, neither the aerial nor the root extracts of this plant inhibited the proliferation of 293T cells at doses up to 1000 μg/mL. There was a time-dependent increase in caspase activity, especially caspase-3 and caspase-9. The levels of TNF-aand IFN-g significantly increased in MDA-MB231 cells treated with aerial extract. In conclusion, the extracts of EB induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells by altering the levels of caspases, TNF-a, and IFN-g. The components and precise modes of action of EB have not yet been determined. However, potential antitumor and immunomodulatory activity was observed along with selectivity against cancer cells in vitro, suggesting that hydroalcoholic extracts of this plant are worthy of additional study.