Research Article

Polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, and p53 in Goiânia, Goiás

Published: December 21, 2015
Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (4) : 17358-17365 DOI: 10.4238/2015.December.21.4

Abstract

Genetic polymorphisms are defined as changes within the DNA sequences of genes that have frequencies in the population higher than 1%. The glutathione S-transferases play an important role in the cellular detoxification systems involved in oxidative stress that can lead to accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Epidemiological studies have suggested that individuals with homozygous deletion of glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) are at higher risk of developing several types of neoplasias. The p53 protein is highly expressed in tumors and transformed cells, and the p53 is a classical tumor suppressor gene involved in regulating cell growth and development. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of polymorphisms in the p53, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes in a population from Goiânia. We evaluated the polymorphisms of these genes in peripheral blood samples. The null or present polymorphism of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and Arg/Pro of the p53 gene were analyzed. Our results revealed a higher frequency of the GSTM1-null polymorphism (72.4%) than the GSTM1-present genotype (27.6%). For GSTT1, we observed higher frequency for the null genotype (65.5%) compared to the present genotype (34.5%). Analysis of p53 gene polymorphisms showed a higher frequency for the genotype Arg/Pro (66%) and a lower frequency for the Arg/Arg (23%) and Pro/Pro (11%) genotypes. It is essential to understand polymorphism frequencies in different populations and to evaluate the role of genetic polymorphisms and their effects on health.

Genetic polymorphisms are defined as changes within the DNA sequences of genes that have frequencies in the population higher than 1%. The glutathione S-transferases play an important role in the cellular detoxification systems involved in oxidative stress that can lead to accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Epidemiological studies have suggested that individuals with homozygous deletion of glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) are at higher risk of developing several types of neoplasias. The p53 protein is highly expressed in tumors and transformed cells, and the p53 is a classical tumor suppressor gene involved in regulating cell growth and development. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of polymorphisms in the p53, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes in a population from Goiânia. We evaluated the polymorphisms of these genes in peripheral blood samples. The null or present polymorphism of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and Arg/Pro of the p53 gene were analyzed. Our results revealed a higher frequency of the GSTM1-null polymorphism (72.4%) than the GSTM1-present genotype (27.6%). For GSTT1, we observed higher frequency for the null genotype (65.5%) compared to the present genotype (34.5%). Analysis of p53 gene polymorphisms showed a higher frequency for the genotype Arg/Pro (66%) and a lower frequency for the Arg/Arg (23%) and Pro/Pro (11%) genotypes. It is essential to understand polymorphism frequencies in different populations and to evaluate the role of genetic polymorphisms and their effects on health.