Research Article

Additional chromosomal abnormalities in core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia

Abstract

Despite sharing a similar genetic abnormality, patients with core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML), which is characterized by the presence of t(8;21) or inv(16)/t(16;16), show heterogeneous survival. Other molecular or cytogenetic factors are supposed to have an impact on the prognosis. We enrolled 24 CBF-AML patients to determine the impact of cytogenetic abnormality, and c-KIT, FLT3, NPM1, and CEBPA mutations on the prognosis. Only three patients had the c-KIT mutation (3/24, 12.5%) and one had the FLT3 mutation. However, over half of the patients (14/24) harbored additional cytogenetic changes, including ten with loss of sexual chromosomes (LOS) [all in the t(8;21) group], and six had additional abnormalities (two cases had both LOS and additional abnormalities). From this small-number study, no association was found between c-KIT mutation and survival and relapse rate. However, additional chromosome abnormalities had a significant association with relapse of the disease (P = 0.027). Stem cell transplant had a trend of benefitting patients after relapse (P = 0.065). This implies that chromosome abnormalities occur in CBF-AML and might take part in the heterogeneous nature of CBF-AML.

Despite sharing a similar genetic abnormality, patients with core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML), which is characterized by the presence of t(8;21) or inv(16)/t(16;16), show heterogeneous survival. Other molecular or cytogenetic factors are supposed to have an impact on the prognosis. We enrolled 24 CBF-AML patients to determine the impact of cytogenetic abnormality, and c-KIT, FLT3, NPM1, and CEBPA mutations on the prognosis. Only three patients had the c-KIT mutation (3/24, 12.5%) and one had the FLT3 mutation. However, over half of the patients (14/24) harbored additional cytogenetic changes, including ten with loss of sexual chromosomes (LOS) [all in the t(8;21) group], and six had additional abnormalities (two cases had both LOS and additional abnormalities). From this small-number study, no association was found between c-KIT mutation and survival and relapse rate. However, additional chromosome abnormalities had a significant association with relapse of the disease (P = 0.027). Stem cell transplant had a trend of benefitting patients after relapse (P = 0.065). This implies that chromosome abnormalities occur in CBF-AML and might take part in the heterogeneous nature of CBF-AML.