Research Article

Autophagy in drug resistance of the multiple myeloma cell line RPMI8226 to doxorubicin

Published: May 25, 2015
Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (2) : 5621-5629 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4238/2015.May.25.14
Cite this Article:
(2015). Autophagy in drug resistance of the multiple myeloma cell line RPMI8226 to doxorubicin. Genet. Mol. Res. 14(2): gmr5235. https://doi.org/10.4238/2015.May.25.14
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Abstract

We investigated the effect of autophagy on drug resistance of multiple myeloma (MM) to doxorubicin (DOX). A DOX-resistant MM cell line (RPMI8226/DOX) was developed by progressively increasing the DOX concentration gradient. The drug resistance index was determined using the MTT method. Transmission electron microscopy, anti-light chain 3-fluorescein isothiocyanate immunofluorescence, and Western blotting were used to detect autophagy of MM cells. Flow cytometry was applied to detect changes in apoptosis of RPMI8226/DOX cells (stained with annexin-V/propidium iodide) caused by inhibition by hydroxychloroquine and 3-methyladenine on autophagy. The drug resistance index of RPMI8226/DOX to DOX was 10.8, and autophagy/lysosomal was clearly observed in RPMI8226/DOX cells under transmission electron microscopy, while immunofluorescence showed granular immunofluorescence in cells. Western blot analysis showed that light chain 3-II protein expression level was higher in RPMI8226/DOX cells than in RPMI8226/S cells. The apoptosis test showed that hydroxychloroquine or 3-methyladenine partially reversed the drug resistance of RPMI8226/DOX cells by inhibiting autophagy. Activation of autophagy in MM cells may explain the drug resistance of myeloma.

We investigated the effect of autophagy on drug resistance of multiple myeloma (MM) to doxorubicin (DOX). A DOX-resistant MM cell line (RPMI8226/DOX) was developed by progressively increasing the DOX concentration gradient. The drug resistance index was determined using the MTT method. Transmission electron microscopy, anti-light chain 3-fluorescein isothiocyanate immunofluorescence, and Western blotting were used to detect autophagy of MM cells. Flow cytometry was applied to detect changes in apoptosis of RPMI8226/DOX cells (stained with annexin-V/propidium iodide) caused by inhibition by hydroxychloroquine and 3-methyladenine on autophagy. The drug resistance index of RPMI8226/DOX to DOX was 10.8, and autophagy/lysosomal was clearly observed in RPMI8226/DOX cells under transmission electron microscopy, while immunofluorescence showed granular immunofluorescence in cells. Western blot analysis showed that light chain 3-II protein expression level was higher in RPMI8226/DOX cells than in RPMI8226/S cells. The apoptosis test showed that hydroxychloroquine or 3-methyladenine partially reversed the drug resistance of RPMI8226/DOX cells by inhibiting autophagy. Activation of autophagy in MM cells may explain the drug resistance of myeloma.