Research Article

Distinct non-cerebrovascular risk factors for ischemic lacunar stroke and non-lacunar stroke: preliminary results

Published: April 10, 2015
Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (2) : 3170-3176 DOI: 10.4238/2015.April.10.28

Abstract

Stroke is a non-communicable disease of increasing socioeconomic importance in aging populations. This study compared the risk factors implicated in two subtypes of ischemic stroke: lacunar stroke (LS) and non-lacunar stroke (NLS). A retrospective case control study was conducted on a total of 368 patients [220 cases (59.8%) of NLS and 148 cases (40.2%) of LS] with first-time onset of ischemic stroke. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to compare multiple non-cerebrovascular risk factors between the two groups. More patients with a history of diabetes were found in the NLS than the LS group (40.5 vs 26.4%), and that both fasting glucose and HbA1C levels before the onset of stroke were higher in NLS than LS patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients with a history of diabetes were 1.57 times more likely to have NLS than LS (OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 0.95-3.26). Moreover, male patients were more likely to develop NLS than females (OR = 1.46, 95%CI = 0.79-2.69), and patients with elevated fibrinogen levels were 1.4 times more likely to develop NLS than LS (OR = 1.40, 95%CI = 1.09-1.80). Additionally, patients who were heavy drinkers (OR = 1.39, 95%CI = 0.68-2.84) or smokers (OR = 1.62, 95%CI = 0.91-2.89) were more likely to develop NLS than LS. Other risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, age, and average blood pressure, did not differ between the two types of stroke. Thus, distinct non-cerebrovascular risk factors (male gender, long history of diabetes, elevated fibrinogen, heavy smoking, and heavy drinking) are associated with a higher risk of developing non-lacunar stroke than lacunar stroke.

Stroke is a non-communicable disease of increasing socioeconomic importance in aging populations. This study compared the risk factors implicated in two subtypes of ischemic stroke: lacunar stroke (LS) and non-lacunar stroke (NLS). A retrospective case control study was conducted on a total of 368 patients [220 cases (59.8%) of NLS and 148 cases (40.2%) of LS] with first-time onset of ischemic stroke. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to compare multiple non-cerebrovascular risk factors between the two groups. More patients with a history of diabetes were found in the NLS than the LS group (40.5 vs 26.4%), and that both fasting glucose and HbA1C levels before the onset of stroke were higher in NLS than LS patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients with a history of diabetes were 1.57 times more likely to have NLS than LS (OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 0.95-3.26). Moreover, male patients were more likely to develop NLS than females (OR = 1.46, 95%CI = 0.79-2.69), and patients with elevated fibrinogen levels were 1.4 times more likely to develop NLS than LS (OR = 1.40, 95%CI = 1.09-1.80). Additionally, patients who were heavy drinkers (OR = 1.39, 95%CI = 0.68-2.84) or smokers (OR = 1.62, 95%CI = 0.91-2.89) were more likely to develop NLS than LS. Other risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, age, and average blood pressure, did not differ between the two types of stroke. Thus, distinct non-cerebrovascular risk factors (male gender, long history of diabetes, elevated fibrinogen, heavy smoking, and heavy drinking) are associated with a higher risk of developing non-lacunar stroke than lacunar stroke.