Research Article

Genetic variability of Brazilian Indian landraces of Arachis hypogaea L.

Published: September 30, 2007
Genet. Mol. Res. 6 (3) : 675-684

Abstract

The Kayabi Indians who inhabit the Xingu Indigenous Park, located in West Central Brazil, have grown and managed peanuts for a long time. A great number of landraces are being maintained by these tribes and some of this germplasm has morphological traits that exceed the variation described in the taxonomic literature. Here, we analyzed the genetic variability of these landraces using a set of microsatellite markers. The analysis showed that, in general, the indigenous samples grouped according to the villages where they were collected. The microsatellite markers used in the present study detected high levels of genetic variation. Similarity groups, genetically distant from each other, were formed, allowing a more efficient use of the existing genetic variability. The present study also showed that these materials can extend the genetic variability available for peanut-breeding programs. Additionally, the microsatellite markers revealed a large dissimilarity among germplasm accessions representing Arachis hypogaea varieties so far included in the same subspecies fastigiata (aequatoriana + peruviana vs fastigiata + vulgaris), a subject that deserves further investigation. Finally, the Xingu Indigenous Park proved to be an important center of diversity for peanut.

The Kayabi Indians who inhabit the Xingu Indigenous Park, located in West Central Brazil, have grown and managed peanuts for a long time. A great number of landraces are being maintained by these tribes and some of this germplasm has morphological traits that exceed the variation described in the taxonomic literature. Here, we analyzed the genetic variability of these landraces using a set of microsatellite markers. The analysis showed that, in general, the indigenous samples grouped according to the villages where they were collected. The microsatellite markers used in the present study detected high levels of genetic variation. Similarity groups, genetically distant from each other, were formed, allowing a more efficient use of the existing genetic variability. The present study also showed that these materials can extend the genetic variability available for peanut-breeding programs. Additionally, the microsatellite markers revealed a large dissimilarity among germplasm accessions representing Arachis hypogaea varieties so far included in the same subspecies fastigiata (aequatoriana + peruviana vs fastigiata + vulgaris), a subject that deserves further investigation. Finally, the Xingu Indigenous Park proved to be an important center of diversity for peanut.

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