Research Article

Multivariate analysis in a genetic divergence study of Psidium guajava

Published: December 18, 2014
Genet. Mol. Res. 13 (4) : 10657-10668 DOI: 10.4238/2014.December.18.8

Abstract

The family Myrtaceae is widespread in the Atlantic Forest and is well-represented in the Espírito Santo State in Brazil. In the genus Psidium of this family, guava (Psidium guajava L.) is the most economically important species. Guava is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries; however, the widespread cultivation of only a small number of guava tree cultivars may cause the genetic vulnerability of this crop, making the search for promising genotypes in natural populations important for breeding programs and conservation. In this study, the genetic diversity of 66 guava trees sampled in the southern region of Espírito Santo and in Caparaó, MG, Brazil were evaluated. A total of 28 morphological descriptors (11 quantitative and 17 multicategorical) and 18 microsatellite markers were used. Principal component, discriminant and cluster analyses, descriptive analyses, and genetic diversity analyses using simple sequence repeats were performed. Discrimination of accessions using molecular markers resulted in clustering of genotypes of the same origin, which was not observed using morphological data. Genetic diversity was detected between and within the localities evaluated, regardless of the methodology used. Genetic differentiation among the populations using morphological and molecular data indicated the importance of the study area for species conservation, genetic erosion estimation, and exploitation in breeding programs.

The family Myrtaceae is widespread in the Atlantic Forest and is well-represented in the Espírito Santo State in Brazil. In the genus Psidium of this family, guava (Psidium guajava L.) is the most economically important species. Guava is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries; however, the widespread cultivation of only a small number of guava tree cultivars may cause the genetic vulnerability of this crop, making the search for promising genotypes in natural populations important for breeding programs and conservation. In this study, the genetic diversity of 66 guava trees sampled in the southern region of Espírito Santo and in Caparaó, MG, Brazil were evaluated. A total of 28 morphological descriptors (11 quantitative and 17 multicategorical) and 18 microsatellite markers were used. Principal component, discriminant and cluster analyses, descriptive analyses, and genetic diversity analyses using simple sequence repeats were performed. Discrimination of accessions using molecular markers resulted in clustering of genotypes of the same origin, which was not observed using morphological data. Genetic diversity was detected between and within the localities evaluated, regardless of the methodology used. Genetic differentiation among the populations using morphological and molecular data indicated the importance of the study area for species conservation, genetic erosion estimation, and exploitation in breeding programs.