Research Article

Cloning and functional identification of a novel BCA3 splice

Published: December 18, 2014
Genet. Mol. Res. 13 (4) : 10648-10656 DOI: 10.4238/2014.December.18.7

Abstract

The human breast cancer-associated gene (BCA3) was first discovered in breast and prostate cancer cells lines. In vivo studies have shown that BCA3 is mainly expressed in breast tumor cells and not in normal breast and prostate tissues. To date, 3 splice variants of BCA3 have been reported: a double-absent variant lacking exon 3 and exon 5 (BCA3-1), an exon 3-absent variant (BCA3-2), and full-length BCA3. In this study, we investigated whether a novel BCA3 splice variant exists that lacks only the exon 5-encoding sequence. BCA3 variant splices were subcloned and sequenced using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The preliminary biological functions of the splices were identified using confocal microscopy and a luciferase assay. The absence of exon 3 and exon 5 influenced the subcellular localization of BCA3 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)-dependent gene expression. Exon 3 and exon 5 of BCA3 may function together to provide a nuclear localization signal or transport sequence to enter the nucleus, and exon 3 may contain specific sequence(s) or domain(s) that influence the NF-κB signal cascade. The discovery of novel BCA3 splicing indicates a new cancer research area, which may increase the understanding of cancer generation and development.

The human breast cancer-associated gene (BCA3) was first discovered in breast and prostate cancer cells lines. In vivo studies have shown that BCA3 is mainly expressed in breast tumor cells and not in normal breast and prostate tissues. To date, 3 splice variants of BCA3 have been reported: a double-absent variant lacking exon 3 and exon 5 (BCA3-1), an exon 3-absent variant (BCA3-2), and full-length BCA3. In this study, we investigated whether a novel BCA3 splice variant exists that lacks only the exon 5-encoding sequence. BCA3 variant splices were subcloned and sequenced using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The preliminary biological functions of the splices were identified using confocal microscopy and a luciferase assay. The absence of exon 3 and exon 5 influenced the subcellular localization of BCA3 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB)-dependent gene expression. Exon 3 and exon 5 of BCA3 may function together to provide a nuclear localization signal or transport sequence to enter the nucleus, and exon 3 may contain specific sequence(s) or domain(s) that influence the NF-κB signal cascade. The discovery of novel BCA3 splicing indicates a new cancer research area, which may increase the understanding of cancer generation and development.