Research Article

Spectrum and features of congenital heart disease in Xi'an, China as detected using fetal echocardiography

Published: November 11, 2014
Genet. Mol. Res. 13 (4) : 9412-9420 DOI: 10.4238/2014.November.11.6

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the spectrum and features of congenital heart disease (CHD) in Xi’an, China using fetal echocardiography. All pregnant women referred for fetal echocardiography underwent a systematic fetal echocardiographic examination. Each case of complex defects was diagnosed according to the predominant pathophysiology, and the overall frequency of each defect was recorded and classified according to its location in the fetal heart. CHD was diagnosed in 195 fetuses. The top 5 types of CHD were, in order, single ventricle (15.9%, 31/195), atrioventricular septal defect (12.3%, 24/195), ventricular septal defect (VSD) (11.8%, 23/195), tetralogy of Fallot (10.8%, 21/195), and double-outlet right ventricle (8.2%, 16/195). The 195 cases of CHD comprised 316 defects in total. The most common defect was ventricular malformation (40.5%, 128/316), followed by great artery anomalies (38.0%, 120/316), endocardial cushion abnormalities (11.7%, 37/316), atrial abnormalities (6.6%, 21/316), and semilunar valve abnormalities (3.2%, 10/316). VSD accounted for the largest proportion (24.4%, 77/316) of the ventricular malformations. The total proportion of obstructive lesions in this group was much higher for the right than for the left side of the heart (18.4% (58/316) vs 9.5% (30/316), respectively). The spectrum of fetal CHD detected by echocardiography was much different compared to that accepted in the past. Complex defects were more common prenatally. Ventricular malformations were the largest constituent of all of the defects associated with fetal CHD, and VSD was the most common component of complex defects. Chinese fetal CHD encompassed more right-sided than left-sided obstructive lesions.

This study aimed to investigate the spectrum and features of congenital heart disease (CHD) in Xi’an, China using fetal echocardiography. All pregnant women referred for fetal echocardiography underwent a systematic fetal echocardiographic examination. Each case of complex defects was diagnosed according to the predominant pathophysiology, and the overall frequency of each defect was recorded and classified according to its location in the fetal heart. CHD was diagnosed in 195 fetuses. The top 5 types of CHD were, in order, single ventricle (15.9%, 31/195), atrioventricular septal defect (12.3%, 24/195), ventricular septal defect (VSD) (11.8%, 23/195), tetralogy of Fallot (10.8%, 21/195), and double-outlet right ventricle (8.2%, 16/195). The 195 cases of CHD comprised 316 defects in total. The most common defect was ventricular malformation (40.5%, 128/316), followed by great artery anomalies (38.0%, 120/316), endocardial cushion abnormalities (11.7%, 37/316), atrial abnormalities (6.6%, 21/316), and semilunar valve abnormalities (3.2%, 10/316). VSD accounted for the largest proportion (24.4%, 77/316) of the ventricular malformations. The total proportion of obstructive lesions in this group was much higher for the right than for the left side of the heart (18.4% (58/316) vs 9.5% (30/316), respectively). The spectrum of fetal CHD detected by echocardiography was much different compared to that accepted in the past. Complex defects were more common prenatally. Ventricular malformations were the largest constituent of all of the defects associated with fetal CHD, and VSD was the most common component of complex defects. Chinese fetal CHD encompassed more right-sided than left-sided obstructive lesions.