Research Article

Distribution of CXCR2 +1208 T/C gene polymorphisms in relation to opportunistic infections among HIV-infected patients in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Published: September 12, 2014
Genet. Mol. Res. 13 (3) : 7470-7479 DOI: 10.4238/2014.September.12.13

Abstract

Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types, including epithelial cells, and its receptor is CXCR2. IL-8 plays an important role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory diseases, including opportunistic infections. With the advent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, opportunistic infections have become major health concerns. However, the role of host genetics on the occurrence of these infections has not been clearly defined. In this study, genomic DNA was extracted from 185 HIV-infected individuals in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to genotype the CXCR2 +1208 T/C gene. Genotypes CC, TT, and TC were associated with chest pains, frequent headaches, loss of weight, diarrhea, and loss of appetite among HIV patients. A significant association between the CC genotype and chest pains was found (P = 0.035). The TC genotype was associated with loss of appetite (P = 0.044) and chest pains (P = 0.042). A weak association between diarrhea and the TT genotype was found (P = 0.082). No association was observed between tuberculosis and the genotypes. Immunological characteristics, such as viral load and CD4 count, were not significantly associated with the genotypes. The results of the present study suggest that carriers of the TC genotype are more susceptible to chest pain, but that this genotype confers a protective effect against loss of appetite. The CC genotype was found to confer protection against chest pain but appeared to increase susceptibility to headaches. Further studies using larger samples are necessary to confirm these results.

Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types, including epithelial cells, and its receptor is CXCR2. IL-8 plays an important role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory diseases, including opportunistic infections. With the advent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, opportunistic infections have become major health concerns. However, the role of host genetics on the occurrence of these infections has not been clearly defined. In this study, genomic DNA was extracted from 185 HIV-infected individuals in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to genotype the CXCR2 +1208 T/C gene. Genotypes CC, TT, and TC were associated with chest pains, frequent headaches, loss of weight, diarrhea, and loss of appetite among HIV patients. A significant association between the CC genotype and chest pains was found (P = 0.035). The TC genotype was associated with loss of appetite (P = 0.044) and chest pains (P = 0.042). A weak association between diarrhea and the TT genotype was found (P = 0.082). No association was observed between tuberculosis and the genotypes. Immunological characteristics, such as viral load and CD4 count, were not significantly associated with the genotypes. The results of the present study suggest that carriers of the TC genotype are more susceptible to chest pain, but that this genotype confers a protective effect against loss of appetite. The CC genotype was found to confer protection against chest pain but appeared to increase susceptibility to headaches. Further studies using larger samples are necessary to confirm these results.