Research Article

New roles of filopodia and podosomes in the differentiation and fusion process of osteoclasts

Published: July 02, 2014
Genet. Mol. Res. 13 (3) : 4776-4787 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4238/2014.July.2.7
Cite this Article:
(2014). New roles of filopodia and podosomes in the differentiation and fusion process of osteoclasts. Genet. Mol. Res. 13(3): gmr4559. https://doi.org/10.4238/2014.July.2.7
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Abstract

The cytoskeleton mediates various cellular processes such as differentiation and fusion, including in the filopodia and podosomes. However, apart from cell migration and formation of the sealing zone, little is known regarding the changes and related regulatory mechanisms of the cytoskeleton and additional roles of the filopodia and podosomes during the differentiation and fusion of osteoclasts. The cytomorphology and cytoskeleton of osteoclasts in the differentiation process were evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and immunofluorescence staining. Moreover, the expression levels of Rho GTPases and enzymes related to osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We detected 3 types of filopodia in osteoclast precursors and only 1 type of filopodia in undifferentiated cells. Mature osteoclasts were completely devoid of filopodia. Interestingly, cell fusion was highly specific, and the fusion initially occurred to the filopodia. Confocal images revealed that F-actin and microtubules significantly differed among fused cells. These results suggest that filopodia and podosomes not only play important roles in cell migration and the formation of sealing zones but also in the pre-fusion selectivity of 2 cells and the movement direction of the cell nucleus and cytoplasm during the fusion process. In addition, cdc42v1, RhoU, and RhoF regulate the formation of 3 types of filopodia during various stages of differentiation, while Rac1, Rac2, and filament A may be associated with cell selectivity during the fusion process.

The cytoskeleton mediates various cellular processes such as differentiation and fusion, including in the filopodia and podosomes. However, apart from cell migration and formation of the sealing zone, little is known regarding the changes and related regulatory mechanisms of the cytoskeleton and additional roles of the filopodia and podosomes during the differentiation and fusion of osteoclasts. The cytomorphology and cytoskeleton of osteoclasts in the differentiation process were evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and immunofluorescence staining. Moreover, the expression levels of Rho GTPases and enzymes related to osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We detected 3 types of filopodia in osteoclast precursors and only 1 type of filopodia in undifferentiated cells. Mature osteoclasts were completely devoid of filopodia. Interestingly, cell fusion was highly specific, and the fusion initially occurred to the filopodia. Confocal images revealed that F-actin and microtubules significantly differed among fused cells. These results suggest that filopodia and podosomes not only play important roles in cell migration and the formation of sealing zones but also in the pre-fusion selectivity of 2 cells and the movement direction of the cell nucleus and cytoplasm during the fusion process. In addition, cdc42v1, RhoU, and RhoF regulate the formation of 3 types of filopodia during various stages of differentiation, while Rac1, Rac2, and filament A may be associated with cell selectivity during the fusion process.