Research Article

Molecular differentiation in natural populations of Anopheles oswaldoi sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Brazilian Amazon, using sequences of the COI gene from mitochondrial DNA

Published: August 07, 2006
Genet. Mol. Res. 5 (3) : 493-502

Abstract

Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) oswaldoi (Peryassú, 1922) s. l., which has been incriminated as a potential human malaria vector in Western Brazilian Amazon, may constitute a cryptic species complex. However, the most recent study with isozymes indicated high similarity among samples from the States of Acre, Amazonas and Rondônia in the Brazilian Amazon. In the present study, 45 individuals were sequenced from Sena Madureira (State of Acre), Coari (State of Amazonas), São Miguel (State of Rondônia), and Moju (State of Pará), using the cytochrome oxidase I gene from mitochondrial DNA. Twenty-five haplotypes were identified in the four localities, and no haplotype was shared among them. The lowest haplotype number was detected in the Coari sample. The dendrogram based on maximum parsimony analysis yielded four groups: I) haplotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 from Sena Madureira and haplotypes 17 and 18 from São Miguel; II) haplotypes 13 to 16 and 19 to 22 from São Miguel; III) haplotypes 23 to 25 from Moju, and IV) haplotypes 6 to 9 from Sena Madureira and haplotypes 10 to 12 from Coari. The genetic distance (uncorrected p) obtained among the four groups ranged from 0.08 to 5.3%, whereas the highest values (4.97 to 5.3%) were found between groups I (Sena Madureira) and III (Moju). Based on male genitalia identification, it was suggested that group I may be A. oswaldoi s. s. whereas group IV may be A. konderi. Groups II and III could constitute other lineages or species within A. oswaldoi s. l., whose taxonomic status remains to be clarified. These results suggest that additional studies are necessary using samples of A. oswaldoi s. l. from a larger geographic area.

Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) oswaldoi (Peryassú, 1922) s. l., which has been incriminated as a potential human malaria vector in Western Brazilian Amazon, may constitute a cryptic species complex. However, the most recent study with isozymes indicated high similarity among samples from the States of Acre, Amazonas and Rondônia in the Brazilian Amazon. In the present study, 45 individuals were sequenced from Sena Madureira (State of Acre), Coari (State of Amazonas), São Miguel (State of Rondônia), and Moju (State of Pará), using the cytochrome oxidase I gene from mitochondrial DNA. Twenty-five haplotypes were identified in the four localities, and no haplotype was shared among them. The lowest haplotype number was detected in the Coari sample. The dendrogram based on maximum parsimony analysis yielded four groups: I) haplotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 from Sena Madureira and haplotypes 17 and 18 from São Miguel; II) haplotypes 13 to 16 and 19 to 22 from São Miguel; III) haplotypes 23 to 25 from Moju, and IV) haplotypes 6 to 9 from Sena Madureira and haplotypes 10 to 12 from Coari. The genetic distance (uncorrected p) obtained among the four groups ranged from 0.08 to 5.3%, whereas the highest values (4.97 to 5.3%) were found between groups I (Sena Madureira) and III (Moju). Based on male genitalia identification, it was suggested that group I may be A. oswaldoi s. s. whereas group IV may be A. konderi. Groups II and III could constitute other lineages or species within A. oswaldoi s. l., whose taxonomic status remains to be clarified. These results suggest that additional studies are necessary using samples of A. oswaldoi s. l. from a larger geographic area.

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