Research Article

Genomic structure, polymorphism and expression analysis of growth hormone-releasing hormone and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide genes in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)

Published: December 12, 2011
Genet. Mol. Res. 10 (4) : 3828-3846 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4238/2011.December.12.1
Cite this Article:
(2011). Genomic structure, polymorphism and expression analysis of growth hormone-releasing hormone and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide genes in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Genet. Mol. Res. 10(4): gmr1514. https://doi.org/10.4238/2011.December.12.1
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Abstract

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) regulate development and somatic growth in teleosts; they may be associated with sexual growth dimorphism in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). We found that the full-length GHRH and PACAP gene sequences obtained from females and males consist of 4160, 4159, 2425, and 2446 bp, respectively, each of which includes four exons and three introns. When we analyzed normal females and males and extra-large male adults, GHRH and PACAP mRNA were found to be predominantly expressed in the brain; the expression levels were highest in normal males. The extra-large males exhibited the lowest mRNA levels of both GHRH and PACAP. Sex differences in GHRH and PACAP mRNA expression during development were also examined in a full-sib family; GHRH and PACAP mRNA were detected at all 27 times sampled from 10 to 410 days old. The GHRH expression levels in females were significantly higher than in males at most of the stages between 20 and 100 days old, while lower than those of males after 120 days old. Five microsatellite loci were identified in GHRH and PACAP genes. We used these five polymorphic markers to genotype 224 individuals, and no significant differences were found between females and males from the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and hatchery samples.

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) regulate development and somatic growth in teleosts; they may be associated with sexual growth dimorphism in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). We found that the full-length GHRH and PACAP gene sequences obtained from females and males consist of 4160, 4159, 2425, and 2446 bp, respectively, each of which includes four exons and three introns. When we analyzed normal females and males and extra-large male adults, GHRH and PACAP mRNA were found to be predominantly expressed in the brain; the expression levels were highest in normal males. The extra-large males exhibited the lowest mRNA levels of both GHRH and PACAP. Sex differences in GHRH and PACAP mRNA expression during development were also examined in a full-sib family; GHRH and PACAP mRNA were detected at all 27 times sampled from 10 to 410 days old. The GHRH expression levels in females were significantly higher than in males at most of the stages between 20 and 100 days old, while lower than those of males after 120 days old. Five microsatellite loci were identified in GHRH and PACAP genes. We used these five polymorphic markers to genotype 224 individuals, and no significant differences were found between females and males from the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and hatchery samples.